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Saturday, 17 August 2019

JVM with no garbage collection

JVM community keeps on adding new GC and recently new one was added and it is called Epsilon and is very special one. Epsilon only allocates memory but will not reclaim any memory.

Image result for garbage collection

It might look like what is use of GC that does not perform any garbage collection. This type of Garbage Collector has special use and we will look into some.

Where this shinny GC can be used ?
Performance Testing

If you are developing solution that has tight latency requirement and limited memory budget then this GC can be used to test limit of program.

Memory Pressure Testing
Want to know extract transient memory requirement by your application. I find this useful if you are building some pure In-Memory solution.

Bench marking Algorithm.
Many time we want to test the real performance of new cool algorithm based on our understanding of BIG (O) notion but garbage collector adds noise during testing.

Low Garbage
Many times we do some optimization in algorithm to reduce garbage produced and GC like epsilon helps in scientific verification of optimization.

How to enable epsilon GC

JVM engineers have taken special care that this GC should not enabled by default in production , so to use this GC we have to use below JVM options

-XX:+UnlockExperimentalVMOptions -XX:+UseEpsilonGC -Xlog:gc

One question that might be coming in your mind what happens when memory is exhausted ? JVM will stop with OutofMemory Error.

Lets look at some code to test GC

How to know if epsilon is used in JVM process?

Java has good management API that allows to query current GC being used, this can also be used to verify what is the default GC in different version of java.

Run above code with below options
-XX:+UnlockExperimentalVMOptions -XX:+UseEpsilonGC VerifyCurrentGC

How does code behave when memory is exhausted. 

I will use below code to show how new GC works.

Running above code with default GC and requesting 5GB allocation causes no issue (java -Xlog:gc -Dmb=5024 MemoryAllocator) and it produces below output

[0.016s][info][gc] Using G1
[0.041s][info][gc] Periodic GC disabled
Start allocation of 5024 MBs
[0.197s][info][gc] GC(0) Pause Young (Concurrent Start) (G1 Humongous Allocation) 116M->0M(254M) 3.286ms
[0.197s][info][gc] GC(1) Concurrent Cycle
[0.203s][info][gc] GC(1) Pause Remark 20M->20M(70M) 4.387ms
[0.203s][info][gc] GC(1) Pause Cleanup 22M->22M(70M) 0.043ms
[1.600s][info][gc] GC(397) Concurrent Cycle 6.612ms
[1.601s][info][gc] GC(398) Pause Young (Concurrent Start) (G1 Humongous Allocation) 52M->0M(117M) 1.073ms
[1.601s][info][gc] GC(399) Concurrent Cycle
I was Alive after allocation
[1.606s][info][gc] GC(399) Pause Remark 35M->35M(117M) 0.382ms

[1.607s][info][gc] GC(399) Pause Cleanup 35M->35M(117M) 0.093ms
[1.607s][info][gc] GC(399) Concurrent Cycle 6.062ms

Lets add some memory limit ( java -XX:+UnlockExperimentalVMOptions -XX:+UseEpsilonGC -Xlog:gc -Xmx1g -Dmb=5024 MemoryAllocator)

[0.011s][info][gc] Resizeable heap; starting at 253M, max: 1024M, step: 128M
[0.011s][info][gc] Using TLAB allocation; max: 4096K
[0.011s][info][gc] Elastic TLABs enabled; elasticity: 1.10x
[0.011s][info][gc] Elastic TLABs decay enabled; decay time: 1000ms
[0.011s][info][gc] Using Epsilon
Start allocation of 5024 MBs
[0.147s][info][gc] Heap: 1024M reserved, 253M (24.77%) committed, 52640K (5.02%) used
[0.171s][info][gc] Heap: 1024M reserved, 253M (24.77%) committed, 103M (10.10%) used
[0.579s][info][gc] Heap: 1024M reserved, 1021M (99.77%) committed, 935M (91.35%) used
[0.605s][info][gc] Heap: 1024M reserved, 1021M (99.77%) committed, 987M (96.43%) used

Terminating due to java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: Java heap space

This particular run caused OOM error and is good confirmation that after 1GB this program will crashed.

Same behavior is true multi thread program also, refer to for sample.

Unit Tests are available to test features of this special GC.

I think Epsilon will find more use case and adoption in future and this is definitely a good step to increase reach of JVM.

All the code samples are available Github repo

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Wednesday, 14 August 2019

Need driven software development using Mocks

Excellent paper on mocking framework by jmock author. This paper was written in 2004 that is 18 years ago but has many tips of building maintainable software system.

Related image

In this post i will highlight key ideas from this paper but suggest you to read the paper to get big ideas behind mocking and programming practice.

 Mock objects are extension of test driven development.

Mock objects can be useful when we start thinking about writing test first as this allows to mock parts that is still not developed. Think like better way of building prototype system.

Mock object are less interesting as a technique for isolating tests from third-party libraries.

This is common misconception about mock and i have seen/written many codes using mock like this. This was really eye opening fact that comes from author of mocking framework.

Writing test is design activity

This is so much true but as engineer we take shortcut many time to throw away best part of writing test. Design that is driven from test also gives insights about real problem and it lead to invention because developer has to think hard about problem  and avoid over engineering

Coupling and cohesion 

As we start wiring test it gives good idea on coupling & cohesion decision we make. Good software will have low coupling and high cohesion. This also lead to functional decomposition of task.
Another benefit of well design system is that it does not have Law_of_Demeter, this is one of the common problem that gets introduced in system unknowingly. Lots of micro services suffer from this anti pattern.

Need driven development
As mocking requires explicit code/setup, so it comes from need/demand of test case. You don't code based on forecast that some feature will required after 6 months, so this allows to focus on need of customer. All the interfaces that is produce as result of test is narrow and fit for purpose. This type of development is also called top down development.

Quote from paper
We find that Need-Driven Development helps us stay focused on the requirements in hand and to develop coherent objects.

Programming by composition

Test first approach allows you to think about Composability of components, every thing is passed as constructor arguments or as method parameter.
Once system is build using such design principal it is very easy to test/replace part of system.
Mock objects allows to think about Composability so that some parts of system are mocked.

Mock test becomes too complicated
One observation in paper talks about complexity of Mock Test.
If system design is weak then mocking will be hard and complicated. It does amplification of problems like coupling, separation of concern.  I think this is best use of mock objects to get feedback on design and use it like motivator to make system better.

Don't add behavior to mock
As per paper we should never add behavior to stub and in case if you get the temptation to do that then it is sign of misplaced responsibility.

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Thursday, 25 July 2019

Exception handling

In this post i will share how error handling is done and what options we have.Error handling is complex topic :-)

Image result for error handling

I will add some context from wikipedia on what is exception handling before going down the rabbit hole of exception handling
Exception handling is the process of responding to the occurrence, during computation, of exceptions – anomalous or exceptional conditions requiring special processing – often disrupting the normal flow of program execution. It is provided by specialized programming language constructs, computer hardware mechanisms like interrupts or operating system IPC facilities like signals.
In general, an exception breaks the normal flow of execution and executes a pre-registered exception handler. The details of how this is done depends on whether it is a hardware or software exception and how the software exception is implemented. Some exceptions, especially hardware ones, may be handled so gracefully that execution can resume where it was interrupted.
Source - 

Few things that is highlighted are "disrupting the normal flow of program execution" , "pre-registered exception handler" , hardware or software exception.
So it explain what error handling is , so i will not spend time on that.

One interesting thing mention is 2 types are exception exists( hardware & software), hardware friends have handled very gracefully and it on software engineer to do part.

Software one are the hard and too many programming languages makes it even harder.
I want you refer to simple-testing-can-prevent-most post on which i try to explain the side effect of wrong error handing and it pure as the result of exception handling pattern.

C way
I am sure if you seen this and have thought that "is this the right way ?".
Code snippet of C error handling

This approach has several issue 
 -  You have to check for error after calling every function that can fail. 
 -  No safety from compiler on forcing/indicating that error can be thrown at this point
 - Error handling is completely optional

Java Way

Then came java and came with mindset let me fix all the error handling and they invented checked/unchecked exception.
Look at code snippet

This approach has every more issues
- Code is full with verbosity of error handling code
- Compiler forces you to handle checked exception in wrong way(i.e just log it or ignore it)
- Nothing meaningful is done apart from log something and wrap it in RuntimeExcetion to get passed compiler.
- Wrapping makes things worse because you start loosing context on what caused error

Functional Programming Way
This world has to do better than "imperative" world and what they did ?  Invented Monads.

Things to consider when using this approach
- You have to learn fancy technical jargon of Category theory or monads
- Now gives 2 value and you have to write little less verbose code to handle both the path
- Performance issues due to extra wrapping of value and when you have millions of them then it hits you very hard
- No compile time safety , caller have an option to get around this by directly getting the value
- and i think this was attempt to fix Optional/MayBe value, in which you don't know why value is not available.
- Stacktrace is gone and in some case it is useful especially building system that is calling third party libs 

Go Lang Way
GoLang wanted to do better than C/Java and took some inspiration from Elm language and came up with delegation or Killer(i.e Panic) approach

This is interesting approach but 
-  With err return in very function call , caller has to add error handling code
- Trace is lost, so you have to very careful in adding all the context to message so that recovery is possible.
- Panic is not good for library or framework because you can't kill the process , it has to be client responsibility to decided on what to do.

JavaScript/Python way
I will leave this for now.

No clear winner in which option is best and each language is doing some trade-off.We don't exceptions like java ans also like Go Lang, it is 2 end of the pendulum.

What could be good is having caller option to decided on what approach to use it could be Java Style or Go Lang.
Better way to separating control flow and error because in some case default value on error could be good option or just cleanup/recovery or send to upper layer to better handing.

So code in catch block tell lot about what client want and that should decided what error handling pattern you should use. I think it is more about education on what is right in context and use the pattern.

Happy to know about what you think about error handling and how it should done.

Sunday, 28 April 2019

Cargo Cult - Innovation Center

Cargo Cult is serious problem in Software industry. I think Innovation center is example of cargo cult.
In this post i will share my views on innovation center.

Cartoon: man carrying ideas sees that door to Innovation Centre is closed.
Innovative Idea killer

People think Innovation center is cool place to work but many thing or almost every thing done at innovation center fails.

Why innovation center is open ?

It is hard to innovate at current place because of process , ceremony, approval & permission etc, so what company/team do is "Lets open Innovation labs" or "Innovation initiative, rather than fixing real problem that are causing friction this new innovation thing is started to feel better.
Teams are changing the way they behave not how they think.

This labs are nothing more than expensive press release stunts and it adds no value.

No alignment with product road map
It does not align with product road map or big mission and it runs on parallel/side track that is not going to meet to main track.

It is new, interesting , shiny but never scales and finally team does tell "How do we launch this ?"

Thinking of "New" . It has to new thing , new brand , new experience  , new tech stack etc. This new thing will never fit in old (i.e product roadmap), so no one wants it.

Working for wrong customer
Work for board of director or executive that sings the cheque for these labs. Team starts working for wrong customer (i.e executive or press) and ignore the real customer.

Unfulfilled dream
You get all the creative people for these labs and very soon they have unfulfilled dream that nothing gets used by real customer. Team gets frustrated and burn out.
It becomes mental gymnastics that goes no where and to make it worse learning/failures are not passed to real delivery team that will make it production ready.

Too much of freedom
Balance is missing in innovation labs and they always run on exploration/experiment mode and does not get close to exploiting the learning.
Too much process makes you slave and no process/structure makes free fall. Finding right balance is important.

Image result for balance innovation 

No credibility 
Very soon innovation team loose all the credibility and people ask question like
 - Why are they doing this ?
 - What are they producing ?
 - Why they don't come and talk to tech teams ?
innovation team moral is crushed .

Idea development is not inclusive

Any product that is successful in market needs 3 things it should be feasible, desirable & profitable.
Feasible is where tech team comes in and confirms that it is feasible to build the product.
Desirable is design team that confirms whether any one want it or not.
Profitable is product team looking from financial/brand gain.

In most of the ideas driven by innovation team all 3 groups are not partner and in case if they are then one of them is dominating due to which needle is not moved in right direction.

Change innovation as spectacle to innovation as strategy to build better products. 
Keep innovating :-) 

Sunday, 10 February 2019

Adaptive scheduling of Spark Job using YARN API

In last blog poorman spark monitoring i shared approach on how to figure out how long Spark Job is waiting for resource.

This post covers some more details on how to be proactive when Spark Job is stuck due to resource constraint.

Little recap of Yarn.
Apache Yarn is resource management and job scheduling framework for hadoop distributed processing framework.

MapReduce NextGen Architecture

Hadoop cluster are shared between teams and for proper utilization of cluster teams/projects are allocated some capacity of cluster.

One of the popular scheduling approach is "Capacity Scheduler" for multi tenant cluster and it is based on Queues.
Yarn allows to define min & max resource for Queue and it is hierarchical, it looks something like below

Capacity Scheduler

One of the issues that can happen in Capacity Scheduler is that your job is submitted to overloaded queue and it gets stuck in Accepted state for long time although other queues has some capacity which is just left unused.
Another common issue is Job started running but did not got all the resource(cores/memory) and will run forever because queue is overloaded.

Yarn gives REST API to query state of cluster/queues/application and that can be used to solve issues where resource is available in cluster but application is not using it :-)

Yarn API to build adaptive job submission
Yarn API comes very handy in solving both of the above issue, some of the strategy using yarn API.

 - Submit job to queue that has capacity.
This type of strategy will select queue at run-time and submit application to least loaded queue.

 - Move Job to queue that has capacity.
This type of strategy will monitor job status and if it is not moving or get stuck in "Accepted" state then will move it to queue that has some capacity.

Abstraction of Yarn API to get minimum details that will allow adaptive job submission.

Once we get all the metrics required for making decision then it becomes straight forward to submit/move the job.
Below code snippet try to move the job based on simple strategy of max wait time for Accepted status App.

Yarn exposes lots of metrics that can used to building adaptive system. You can refer to ResourceManagerRest for full set of API.

Word of caution that be fair when you are using this strategy, don't use whole cluster alone.
Image result for greedy

Code used in post is available @ yarn github project

Sunday, 3 February 2019

Golang control statements

We are going to explore Go lang control structure, this is not covering all the control statement but you can refer control-structures from effective go to get all the details.

Refer to index page for all the content written so far.

One thing that i like about control structure is that it is very easy to understand.
Focus on readability is clearly seen .

If statement
Go lang author managed to removed extra bracket in if statement, it looks something like 

if x > 10 {
fmt.Println("I am gt ", x)
} else {
fmt.Println("I am lt ", x)

Another variation that includes initialization and condition both  

if value := time.Now().Weekday(); value == time.Sunday {
fmt.Println("Yahoooo.. today is sunday")
} else {
fmt.Println("Lets get back to work. I hate", value)


Switch Statement
Switch case has few variations 

Simple one
value := 10
switch value {
case 10:
fmt.Println("Value is 10")
fmt.Println("Some other value than 10")


With No expression
switch {
case value >= 10:
fmt.Println("Value is gt 10")
case value >= 20:
fmt.Println("Value is gt 20")


Switch with multiple condition in single case

specialValue := '@'
switch specialValue {
case '@', '!', '#':
fmt.Println("This is special value")
fmt.Println("This is normal value")


Switch with type assertion 
Type assertion can be only done using switch case using variable.(type) expression.

var t interface{}
t = "James"
switch t.(type) {
case int:
fmt.Println("Int value", t)
case string:
fmt.Println("String value", t)


Has only one type of loop(while) and it can be used for all the purpose.

C/Java like
It has init, condition,post section.

value := 0
for counter := 0; counter < 10; counter++ {


Just condition
value = 0
for value < 10 {


Infinite (with no condition)

for {
if value > 10 {


Smart loops
This is useful when dealing with arrays/map/channels

days := []string{"Sunday", "Monday"}
for index, value := range days {
fmt.Println("Index ", index, "Value ", value)


range keyword is very power full it works with all the collections types.
Another thing i like about golang is that compiler helps with lot of common error for e.g unused variable are compiler error, so below example is error because index is not used.

days := []string{"Sunday", "Monday"}
for index, value := range days {
fmt.Println("Value ", value)


It is possible to ignore the value by using "_" for eg

days := []string{"Sunday", "Monday"}
for _, value := range days {
fmt.Println("Value ", value)


Sample used in this post is available @ 003-statement github repo

Saturday, 26 January 2019

Poorman Spark monitoring

Spark exposes lots of metrics to get insights on what is happening inside Spark Application but some time you are looking for quick metrics on spark application.

In this post i will share example of some metrics that can be collected quickly using simple pattern.

How long my spark application is waiting for resource allocation ?
I always felt need of this metrics when running in shared cluster with limited capacity allocated to user.
This metrics is useful to know when spark job is stuck because cluster is busy.

Pattern is very simple start timer thread that monitor spark context creation and logs time at regular interval.

Code snippet for monitor code

Just start timer before SparkContext is created using below code


How many records spark job/stage is processing ?

This is based on pattern that we need distributed counter to track how many records are processed by stage.
Spark has something called LongAccumulator that an be used for capturing metrics like this.

So we need block of code that is just logs value of accumulator and takes some action if it is not moving fast.
Code snippet for tracking records processed.

monitorRecordsProcessed is submitted for async execution and processData in map function will increment counter.

Note about accumulator that these are shared variables between driver & executors. If accumulator are written on executor side then there is chance of multiple/double writes due to retry of failed stages.
So just take that in account when dealing with Accumulator , they are very good as debugging tool or giving interactive feedback of processing but it can contain some noise when jobs/stages are failing.

Spark is using Accumulator to tracking stage internal metrics and all that is available on Spark UI.

How do we get access spark internal metrics ?

Now we are getting in Rich man monitoring. Lets look at example that gives access to internal accumulators and also exposes API to get all the metrics during job execution.

Below code logs all the accumulators at stage level, only rule is give name to accumulator so that it is available as internal spark metrics.

Once listener is defined then just add it to sparkContext

sparkSession.sparkContext.addSparkListener(new StageAccumulatorListener)

This listener will start showing all the accumulators, sample of logs

Record counter also come in this list because it was named value.

Spark gives API to get access to metrics during execution and it can be used to build proactive monitoring system.

All the code used in this post is available on poormonitor github

Sunday, 20 January 2019

Value of pass by value in GoLang

Now we are getting in some of the core concepts! Knowing this is very important to understand impact Go program will have on machine.

Everything is pass by value in Go, no matter what you pass. This also has what is you see is what you get.

Each go routine(i.e path of execution) get Stack, which is continuous memory. Go routine needs stack to do the all the allocation required. We will learn about go routine later but it is just like thread but much more lighter.

As go routine execute function it starts getting slice or portion of memory from stack that was allocated.

Lets try to understand with simple example

func main() {

counter := 0

fmt.Println("In main", counter)
fmt.Println("After inc", counter)

Stack frame state when inc is executing

Stack Frame

Function can only read/write to its stack frame, that is the reason why function parameters are required.
With above example any change done by inc function is local to that stack frame and if it wants to share it to caller then it has to return it, so that value can be copied to caller frame.

Another interesting properties about stack frame is that it is reusable for eg after inc function completes execution that stack frame is available to another function.
So it is like increment pointer in stack to allocate memory to function and once that function completes then decrements the counter to mark memory as free.

Pass by value is required for safety and to reason about code which is missing in many language.

Lets explore how all this changes when pointer or address of variable is passed to function.

Lets try to understand how stack frame looks when below code is executed

 func main() {

counter := 0

fmt.Println("Before pointer inc ", counter)
 fmt.Println("After pointer inc ", counter)

Stack frame using pointer

In above example parameter to function is still passed by value but this time it is of address type.
Caller knows that it has received address(&variable) of variable and to change the value , it has to use different instruction (*variable) 

An asterisk (*) operator allow program to change the variable that is outside of its own stack frame, this variable can be in heap or caller function stack.

Having clear distinction when value is passed vs address of value is very power full thing as it tells that which function are doing read vs write.
Anytime you see pointer (&) , it is very clear that some mutation is happening in function.

No magical modification is possible.

Having clear distinction has couple of advantage 
 - Compiler can do escape analysis to determine what gets allocated to stack vs heap. This keeps GC happy because stack allocation are cheap and heap has GC overhead
 - When to copy value vs share value. This is very useful thing for large values, you don't want to copy 1gb of buffer to function.

Go lang gives options to developer to choose trade off rather than giving no control.

Lets look at one more example on how allocation works

func allocateOnStack() stock {

google := stock{symbol: "GOOG", price: 1109}
return google

func allocateOnHeap() *stock {

google := stock{symbol: "GOOG", price: 1109}
return &google

Both of the above function is creating stock value but look at return type, one returns value(allocateOnStack) and other one (allocateOnHeap) returns address.
Compiler looks the return type and make a decision on what goes on stack vs heap.
So you decided what you want to throw at GC vs keep it happy.

You might have question on Stack like how big is stack ?
Each Go routine starts with 2 MB stack size, it is small and good enough to hold lots of functions call.
For most of the cases 2 MB is good but if program continues to put memory pressure on Stack then it grows to adjust the need only for specific Go routine.
Stack growth has allocation & copy cost, it is just like allocate new array and copy the value from previous array.

One nice thing about Stack memory is that it is monitored by GC and it will reduce the size of Stack if utilization of stack is around 25%.  

Go gives power of compact memory layout using Struct and efficient memory allocation using pass by value.

All the samples used in this blog is available @ pointers github repo

Sunday, 13 January 2019

How Go lang struct works

This is 3rd post of my Go lang experiment, if you are want to read about earlier post then go to


Struct are cool types, it allows to create user defined type.

Struct basic
Struct can be declared like this

type person struct {
   firstName string
   lastName string

this declares struct with 2 fields.

Struct variables can be declared like this
var p1 person

var construct will initialized p1 to Zero value, so both the string fields are set to "".

DOT (.) construct is used to access field.

How to define struct variables.
Couple of ways by which variable can be created.

var p1 person                                      // Zero value
var p2 = person{}                                  //Zero value
p3 := person{firstName: "James", lastName: "Bond"} //Proper initialization
p4 := person{firstName: "James"}                   //Partial initialization

p5 := new(person) // Using new operator , this returns pointer
p5.firstName = "James"
p5.lastName = "Bond"

Struct comparison
Same type of struct can be compared using "==" operator.

p1 := person{firstName: "James", lastName: "Bond"}
p2 := person{firstName: "James", lastName: "Bond"}

if p1 == p2 {
fmt.Println("Same person found!!!!", p1)
} else {
fmt.Println("They are different", p1, p2)

this shows power of pure value, no equals/hashcode type of things are required to compare, language has first class support to compare by value.

Struct conversion
Go lang does not have casting, it is supports conversion and it is applicable to any types not just struct.

Casting keep source object reference and put target object struct/layout on top of it, so in casting any changes done to source object after casting is visible to target object.
This is good for reducing memory overhead but for safety this can cause big problem because values can change magically from source object.

On other end conversion copies source value, so after conversion both source and target have no link, changing one does not impact other one. This is good for type safety and easy to reason about code.

Lets look into some conversion example of struct.

type person struct {
   firstName string
   lastName string

type anotherperson struct {
firstName string
lastName  string

Both of the above are same in structure but these two can't be assigned to each other without conversion.

p1 := person{firstName: "James", lastName: "Bond"}
anotherp1 := anotherperson{firstName: "James", lastName: "Bond"}

p1  = anotherp1 //This is compile time error
p1 = person(anotherp1)//This is allowed

Compiler is very smart to figure out that these two types are compatible and conversion is allowed.
Now if go and make change in otherperson struct like drop the field/ new field/change the order then it becomes not compatible and compiler stops this!

When it does allow conversion then it allocate new memory for target variable and copies the value.

For eg
p1 = person(anotherp1)
anotherp1.lastName = "Lee" // Will have not effect on p1

How struct are allocated

Since it is composite type and understanding memory layout of struct is very useful in knowing what type of overhead it comes up.

Current processor will do some cool things for fast & safe read/write.
Memory allocation will be aligned to word size of underlying platform ( 32 bit or 64 bit) and it will be also aligned based on size of the type for eg 4 byte value will be aligned to 4 byte address.

Alignment is very important for speed and correctness.
Lets take example to understand this, in 64 bit platform word size is 64bit or 8 byte, so it will take 1 instruction to read 1 word.

Memory Layout
Value shown in red is 2 byte and if value shown in red is allocated in 2 words(i.e at the boundary of word) then it is going to take multiple operation to read/write value and for write some kind of synchronization might be required.

Since value is only 2 byte, so it can easily fit in single word so compiler will try to allocate this in single word

Single word allocation
Above allocation is optimized for read/write. Struct allocation works on same principle.

Now lets take example of struct and see how what will be memory layout

type layouttest struct {
b  byte
v  int32
f  float64
v2 int32

layout of "layoutouttest" will look something like below

[ 1 X X 1 1 1 1 X ][1 1 1 1 X X X X][1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1][1 1 1 1 X X X X]

X - is for padding.
It took 4 word to place this struct and to get the alignment by data type padding is added.
If we calculate size of struct ( 1 + 4 + 4 + 8 = 17) then it should fit value in 3 word( 8*3 = 24) but it took 4 words( 8 * 4 = 32). It might look like 8 bytes are wasted.

Go gives full control to developer about memory layout, much more compact struct can be created to get to 3 word allocation.

type compactlyouttest struct {
f  float64
v  int32
v2 int32
b  byte

Above struct has reordered field in descending order by size it takes and this helps in getting to below memory layout

[ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ][1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1][1 X X X X X X X]

In this arrangement less space is wasted in padding and you might be tempted to use compact representation.

You should should not do this for couple of reason
 - This breaks the readability because related fields are moved all over the place.

 - Memory might not be issue, so it could be just over optimization.

 - Processor are very smart, values are read in cacheline not in word, so CPU will read multiple words and you will never see any slowness in read. You can read about how cache line works in cpu-cache-access-pattern post.

 - Over optimization can result in false sharing issue, read concurrent-counter-with-no-false-sharing to see impact of false sharing in multi threaded code.

So profile application before doing any optimization.

Go has built in packages for getting memory alignment details & other static information of types.

Below code gives lot of details about memory layout

unsafe & reflect package gives lot of internal details and looks like idea has come from java

Code used in this blog is available @ 001-struct github

Thursday, 10 January 2019

what are Golang Types

Go is strongly typed language and type is life. Language has rich types and good support for extension of type. Type provides integrity.

In this post i will share some of primitive types and how Go handles them.

Everything is 0 or 1 in computer and only these 2 values are used to represent any values we want.
Arrangement of 0 or 1 tells what is the value.

Take a example of byte value at some memory location


What is it ? You need type information .

If type is int then value is 10, if type of enum then some other value.

Type information tell us about value and size for eg if type is Boolean then it tells it is single byte value.

Information about types supported by Go can be found at Lang Spec Types  page.

How to declare variable ?

var variablename type
variablename := value // Short declaration

Both of above declare variable but the way it is initialized is very different.

Var creates and initialized with ZERO value of its type,  Zero value is very special it makes code bug free and clean! No null checks.

Zero value is based on Type so for integer type it is zero, boolean it is false , string it is empty.

Go has some type like int that gets size based on underlying architecture, for eg it will be 4 bytes(i.e 32 bit arch) or 8 bytes( 64 bit arc). This is also good example of mechanical sympathy to underlying platform.

Examples of variable declaration

Alias for built in type

This is very powerful feature and it allow built in types to be extended by adding behavior .
Example of type alias

In above example RichInt has toBinary function that returns binary value.  I will share later how to extend types when we explore methods of types.

Casting Vs Conversion
Casting is magic, it allows to convert one type to another implicitly. How many times in java you lost value when long/int casting or double/float.
Go has concept of conversion, you explicitly convert from x to y type and pay the cost of extra memory at the cost of safety.

Go lang spec has some good examples.

Some real custom types
Go lang has support for Struct type, it is pure value type , no noise of behavior attached to it.
It gives control of memory layout, you can choose really compact memory layout to avoid padding or to add padding if required.

Struct can be declared like below

type person struct {
firstName string
lastName  string
        age int

Once struct is defined then we can create value of struct type.
It is value not object just remember that!

value can be created using below code

var p1 person

above code create value and initialized it with zero value, string is initialized to empty value and int to 0.
No null check is required when processing p1 because it is initialized to ZERO value

Short declaration can be used to specified non zero or other value

p2 := person{firstName: "James", lastName: "Bond", age: 35}

Zero value and convenient way to creating value kills the need of having constructor or destructor in Go.
You can now start seeing power of value. No overhead of constructor/destructor/ or complex life cycle.

I know you will have question on what about special init code or clean up code that is required ?

behavior are handled very differently, we will go over that in later post.

Struct can be nested also and Zero value or short declaration works like magic!

We will create additional struct

type address struct {
address1 string
address2 string
city     string

type contact struct {
landLine int
mobile   int

type person struct {
firstName      string
lastName       string
age            int
add            address
contactDetails contact

p3 := person{firstName: "James", lastName: "Bond", age: 35,
add:            address{address1: "30 Wellington Square", address2: "Street 81"},
contactDetails: contact{mobile: 11119999}}

Code used in blog is available @ letsgo github repo